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İngilizce Eğitimi İngilizce

Alt 04-09-2012
Fatih Arslan Fatih Arslan isimli Üye şimdilik offline konumundadır
Üyelik tarihi: Feb 2011
Bulunduğu yer: USA
Mesajlar: 2.062
Standart Endangered Fishes and Environmental Issues

There was always conflict, frustration, civil disobedience between U.S Forest Service (USFS) and native people in New Mexico in recent history because of conflicting group interests for the use of the forests in this region. In fact, historically, after the end of 1848 U.S – Mexican, the right to live and use those lands in the Carson National Forest’s jurisdiction was given to Mexico and inhabited of Hispano. Although the land’s jurisdiction was given to Mexico, American legal system had still ruling rights.

However, traditional owners of those lands were deprived because of unequal and inappropriateness of this legal system and, in fact, native people could not find equal opportunity to use their own land to continue their usual life. Those regulations have impeded from taking advantage of their own natural resources (i.e., forests). In addition, American legal system has given privileges to large companies to utilize those natural resources for the sake of their own benefit. For example, in 1880 expansion of the railroad industry has brought about to increase the extensive usage of those forests and land buy giving detrimental harms to native people.

By 1940’s to better meet the multiple answer interest, several attempts have been made by Vallecitos Federal Sustained Yield Unit, established in 1948 in the Carson National Forest. The goal of this institution was to provide stable employment and forest products for communities in New Mexico. However, they had never been successful to fulfill their previously stated goal (new job opportunities for native people and local business). According to all attempts that have been made, USFS was expected to focus on common interest of agency and the Hispano communities. However, communities were forced to obey the policies by designed. For instance, to restore damaged national forest land and health, new grazing policies were introduced by USFS. Hence, USFS reduce the stock number of cattle, put grazing fees, and moved them to another place where is determined by USFS. On the other hand communities had relied on cattle to provide food, and emergency stores. All of changes that are made had affected to the Hispano communities.

Likewise, timber sale was another issue that had serious detrimental impact on the Hispano villages. UFSF has had impactful problems in their policy implementation because of growing market demand for railroad ties and industrialization. Especially, after World War 2 timber demand increased and additionally environmental activist move to New Mexico in the late 1960s, 1970s and 1980s because of large volume timber cuts. All these developments lead new environmental groups (Forest Conservation Council and The Southwest Center) to move to New Mexico so to force USFS change their management policy.

After 1980, CRRD played signification role in designing policy innovation. Crockett Dumas who was catalyst, leader and follower of the CRRD policy. He pointed out that in order to get power, we should trust in and respect to people who depended on the land they lived. After 22 years later in the U.S Forest Service (USFS), Duma explained that you cannot get their approval and support from people by saying “no”. Dumas focused on developing respect, trust and communication to increase his power, and he and others apply horseback diplomacy. In light with his suggestions, they stressed on listening their opinion and concern, developing relationship. Accordingly, they enabled those native people to take active role in revision of current regulation to satisfy mutual interest. In other words, those new policy developments met demands and interests of both Camino Real Ranger District (CRRD) and USFS; however and also it was called CRRD policies. The reason why they had common interests was that both institutions aimed to care for the land and serve the people.

The CRRD experience helps us to understand how to utilize the flexibility between an elaborate structure of law and accumulated regulation as well as large bureaucracy. According Duma, the way someone create good communication is first to listen native people’s concern and thoughts. Duma attempted and employed various strategies (i.e., “be a good manager, keep people happy). Another way was suggested by Duma was to superficially understand native people’s concern without getting into problems in depth. By doing so, the policy regulators would find ways to say “Yes” instead of saying “No”. Accordingly, beside Horseback diplomacy strategy, Duma also proposed other strategies to build interpersonal relationship, control the political power so to eliminate Forest Guardians’ impact on this area. For example, USFS built law and some regulations aligned with appeals and litigation. Duma assumed that we need to be more flexible about implementation and that we avoid the appeals and litigation. He accepted violation of the injunction because this is the way people together and talk.

Policy Improvement

Cause of controversy for Mexican spotted owl and injunction, CRRD policy focused on improvement of grazing issues. Santa Barbara Grazing Association which is grazing group in the CRRD realized that area of the forage was decreasing, whereas both living area of the cattle and density of trees was increasing. In this point, USFS was taking care of forest restoration.

Accordingly, the successes of the CRRD policy have to being taken account. Normally, they cannot appreciate due to awards that are given to CRRD and success of the CRRD. Some groups and people might envy so that began to undermine relationship within the district and forest. It is called as La envidia. Nevertheless, the success of the CRRD policy cannot underestimate. After Duma left his duty, personal relationship and success of the CRRD policy began to atrophy due to “la envidia”. Timber permitting for personal use and grazing improvement are formulized but not effective as much as when Duma’ era. The numbers of both communication decreased among communities and the incidence of focusing on the forest restoration have been decreased . Especially, when Duma left, Forest Cervices (USFS) does have problem with the community, because CRRD policies which provide communication between USFS and community does not work efficiently as much as Duma’ time.

Türker Doğruer
Texas Tech University
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Alt 04-09-2012
Administrator Administrator isimli Üye şimdilik offline konumundadır
Üyelik tarihi: Aug 2011
Bulunduğu yer: Türkiye
Mesajlar: 2.042

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